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Dai Dai Shogi

Dai Dai Shogi is one of the 'Large Shogi variants' of which records have been preserved since medieval times, and large it is indeed. On a 17x17 board each side starts with 96 pieces of 64 different types, making this double the size of Chu Shogi, which was the dominant form of Chess in Japan in those days. The vast majority of piece types have only stepping or (limited-range) sliding moves, as oblique leapers are virtually non-existent in Shogi, give or take an occasional Knight. The number of piece types can be so large because the pieces in general lack the 8-fold symmetry that all orthodox Chess pieces (except Pawn) have. By giving the pieces different ranges in the various directions this extraorinarily large number of piece types can be constructed. Some pieces even break the left-right symmetry, which the FIDE Pawn still respects.

So most of the 64 piece types have quite ordinary Rook or Bishop moves, and many are in fact 'steppers', which have a sub-set of the moves of an orthodox King. A large number of these pieces is in fact exceedingly weak, with steps in just 2 or 3 directions.

What spices up the game is a hand full of very powerful pieces, unique to the middle and large Shogi variants. One of their ingredients is the so-called 'Lion power', the ability to continue moving after having made a capture, and thus able to make multiple captures in one turn. Some other pieces are 'hook movers', sliders able to turn one corner in a place of their choosing, wich thus have an enormous number of move targets.


Dai Dai Shogi is characterized by a highly asymmetric setup, where most pieces that promote are present only in a single copy, while the piece they promote to is also present in the initial setup, and then doesn't promote. This can be interpreted as that you start with one unpromoted and one already promoted copy of each promotable piece. Most stepper pieces are not promotable, and you typically start with a pair of those. The weaker pieces are positioned directly behind the Pawn rank, while the promotable stronger pieces occupy the back rank. Only 4 promoted types are not present in the initial setup.

First rank

  • a1, q1 Lance (R)
  • b1 Long-Nosed Goblin
  • c1 She-Devil (W5F2)
  • d1 Racing Chariot (RbF)
  • e1 Dragon Horse (BW)
  • f1 Free Demon (BsRfW5)
  • g1 Queen (Q)
  • h1 Left General (FvrW)
  • i1 King (K)
  • j1 Right General (FvlW)
  • k1 Free Dream Eater (BfRsW5)
  • l1 Dragon King (RF)
  • m1 Square Mover (RfF)
  • n1 Rook (R)
  • o1 Dove (F5W2)
  • p1 Hook Mover (R(R-sR))

Click on piece name to see how it moves

Third rank

  • b3 Vertical Mover (vRsW)
  • d3 Enchanted Fox (fF2bW2) -> She-Devil
  • f3 Water Buffalo (BsRvW2) -> Free Dream Eater
  • h3, j3 Silver General (FfW)
  • i3 Great Dragon (BsRfW2)
  • l3 Flying Horse (WfF2) -> Queen
  • n3 Enchanted Badger (fsW2) -> Dove
  • p3 Bishop (B)

Fourth rank

  • a4 Blue Dragon (sRvWrfBlfF)
  • b4 Fragrant Elephant (W2fBbF2)
  • c4 Northern Barbarian (fF2bFfsW) -> Fragrant Elephant
  • d4 Western Barbarian (fFsW2vW) -> Lion Dog
  • e4, m4 Wood General (fF2)
  • f4, l4 Stone General (fF)
  • g4, k4 Iron General (fFfW)
  • h4, j4 Copper General (fFvW)
  • i4 Golden Bird (F3vRsW2)
  • n4 Eastern Barbarian (fFvW2sW) -> Lion
  • o4 Southern Barbarian (bF2fFbsW) -> White Elephant
  • p4 White Elephant (W2bBfF2)
  • q4 White Tiger (vRsW2lfBrfF)

Fifth rank

  • a5 Left Chariot (fRbWlfrbB)
  • b5, p5 Side Mover (sRvW)
  • c5, o5 Violent Ox (W2)
  • d5, n5 Angry Boar (W)
  • e5, m5 Evil Wolf (fFfsW)
  • f5, l5 Violent Bear (fF2sW)
  • g5, k5 Ferocious Leopard (FvW)
  • h5, j5 Savage Tiger (fFvW2)
  • i5 Standard Bearer (fRfBsbW2bF2)
  • q5 Right Chariot (fRbWrflbB)

Sixth and seventh rank

  • a6-q6 Pawns (fW)
  • f7, l7 Howling Dog (fRbW)
-> means: promotes to

Only through promotion

  • Wizard Stork (fRbWB)
  • Mountain Witch (bRfWB)
  • Furious Fiend (Lion + K3)
  • Great Elephant (vW3sW5fB3bB5)

Second rank

  • a2, q2 Reverse Chariot (vR)
  • b2 Old Kite (W2fF) -> Capricorn
  • c2 Lion (see below) -> Furious Fiend
  • d2 Old Rat (fF2bW2) -> Wizard Stork
  • e2 Prancing Stag (FfWsW2) -> Square Mover
  • f2 Cat Sword (F) -> Dragon Horse
  • g2 Phoenix (WA) -> Golden Bird
  • h2, j2 Gold General (WfF)
  • i2 Neighbor King (K) -> Standard Bearer
  • k2 Kirin (FD) -> Great Dragon
  • l2 Rushing Bird (BfsR) -> Free Demon
  • m2 Flying Dragon (F2) -> Dragon King
  • n2 Blind Monkey (FsW) -> Mountain Witch
  • o2 Lion Dog -> Great Elephant
  • p2 Poisonous Snake (fDbAsW) -> Hook Mover

One army with all promotable pieces promoted (and marked with dots).


Furious Fiend, Lion

A Furious Fiend slides 3 squares in each of the 8 directions, or moves as Lion. A Lion moves as King, but up to twice per turn, in independent directions, also if the first King move captures something. The ability to move on after a capture is called 'Lion power'. The combination of two steps can also be taken as a hop, i.e. over an occupied square without disturbing it, when it does not return to the starting square. So the Lion can:

Lion Dog

A Lion Dog can make up to three steps along any ray passing through it. It can return to, but not overshoot its starting square. Each of the steps can be a move, a capture or a hop, with the exception that it cannot hop back to its startng square. So it can:

Hook Mover, Long-Nosed Goblin

The Hook Mover is a Rook that can (but does not have to) make one 90-degree turn in its path. The Long-Nosed Goblin is a Bishop that can do that (and in addition has an orthogonal step to break color binding). Like any slider, they have to stop at the point where they capture, and the (bent) path they move along must be empty up to that point.

Kirin, Phoenix, Poisonous Snake

These pieces can leap directly (in addition to steps in other directions) to the second square along some orthogonal or diagonal. Such a jump is relatively rare in Shogi, when not part of a move with Lion Power.


The Pawn occurs in its Shogi form, i.e. it captures as well as moves straight ahead.



The game is won by capturing the opponent's King.


Many pieces in the initial setup can promote (but, surprisingly, not Pawns). This can happen anywhere on the board, whenever they capture something. There is no choice in what you promote to; each piece has a fixed promoted form. Promotion (for promotable pieces) is mandatory at the end of every move that captured something.

Promotion is irreversible: once promoted the piece stays promoted for the rest of its life in the game.


The historic sources mention that repetition is forbidden, but do not elaborate on which side carries the burden to avoid it. It is likely that you could not win by perpetually checking your opponent, and that the burden to deviate was thus upon the checker, like in all Asian variants. The modern interpretation of this rule is that evading a perpetual chase, with moves that do not attack anythinging should also be always allowed, so that the chaser must deviate, and that repeats reached without either side attacking anything should be draws.


The Lion and Lion Dog obtained through promotion of the Barbarians are not really the same as those initially present, as the latter can still promote (to Furious Fiend and Great Elephant), while the former cannot promote anymore.

The promoting pieces are all on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th rank, and the central three and the edge pieces usually do not promote. With only few exceptions pieces stand very close to the one they promote to.

Rule variations

This description follows the rules described in the English Wikipedia. These are not uncontested, though: the Japanese Wikipedia gives different moves for Old Kite and Poisonous Snake. The Lion Dog move has also been much debated, especially since the given move makes it the only piece in Dai Dai Shogi that 'promotes' to a weaker one. (This argument might not carry much weight, though, as only the oldest source has the Lion Dog 'promote' this way; in two other historic descriptions the Lion Dog is a non-promoting piece.) Several alternative moves have been proposed, differing in the amount of lion power this piece has. This also reflects on the move of the Furious Fiend, which in historic sources is said to move as "Lion or Lion Dog". Apparently the historic sources are ambiguous enough to allow for such deviating interpretations. The game of course might have known local variations even in historic times, or the write-up of their rules might have been distorted by copying errors.

A 50% smaller version of Dai Dai Shogi, featuring a representative selection of the pieces on a 13x13 board, but otherwise using identical rules, was designed to make this game more accessible. It was published under the name Cashew Shogi.

This 'user submitted' page is a collaboration between the posting user and the Chess Variant Pages. Registered contributors to the Chess Variant Pages have the ability to post their own works, subject to review and editing by the Chess Variant Pages Editorial Staff.

Author: H. G. Muller.

Last revised by H. G. Muller.

Web page created: 2015-03-19. Web page last updated: 2015-03-19